Compressive surface layers were formed on hot-pressed silicon carbide and nitride. The objective of these treatments was to improve the impact resistance of these materials at 1590 K (2400 F). Quenching was used to form compressive surface layers on silicon carbide. The presence of the compressive stresses was demonstrated by slotted rod tests. Compressive stresses were retained at elevated temperatures. Improvements in impact resistance at 1590 K (2400 F) and flexural strength at room temperature were achieved using cylindrical rods 3.3 mm (0.13 in.) in diameter. Carburizing treatments were used to form the surface layers on silicon nitride. In a few cases using rectangular bars improvements in impact resistance at 1590 K (2400 F) were observed.